Sunday, February 23, 2020
Hydrogels - Term Paper Example A hydrogel construction can be described as a three-dimensional jetty is made up of linear polymer chains with covalent connections, which are in turn connected together by further cross-connections. These cross-connections could be covalent, ionic grafts or crystal sections . Hydrogels form due to polarity and hydrophilic nature of polar groups existing between the polymer chains cross-connections that render it insoluble. There are several known methods of synthesizing hydrogels, some of which are explained below. A simple method of constructing hydrogels is by crosslinking water-soluble polymers (with functional groups like -OH, -COOH, -NH2) in solution. In solution co-polymerization reactions, ionic or neutral monomers are mixed with a multi-functional crosslinking agent. The reaction is initiated thermally using UV-light, or by a redox initiator system. The solvent serves as heat sink and minimizes temperature control problems. The reaction is carried out in an organic solvent to prevent water from reacting with the crosslinking agent. Once crosslinked, the resultant hydrogels are washed with distilled water to remove any unreacted monomers, crosslinking agent, and the initiator. Equation 1 shows one such solution polymerization reaction conducted on 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate monomers to form a hydrogel. This solution crosslinking method is often advantageous since the starting material used can be a well-characterized, purified polymer, and the crosslinking conditions required are mild enough to be carried out in the presence of an active agent. For example, poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogels are prepared from hydroxyethyl methacrylate by this method, using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinking agent . The hydrogels synthesized can be made pH- sensitive or temperature-sensitive as required by incorporating methacrylic acid or N-isopropylacrylamide  as monomers. Ionizing radiation, such as Co-Ã ³ or
Thursday, February 6, 2020
Onset Ventures - Case Study Example Early-stage ventures are very young firms with limited operational resources and are usually in the development, startup or survival stages. The seasoned firms are usually in rapid-growth or maturity stages (Leach & Melicher, p.21-22). Seed financing is represented by the funds required to determine if an idea can be a viable business opportunity. This is usually necessary at the development stage of a venture. Other sources of financing are startup financing, first-round, second-round, liquidity stage, mezzanine and seasoned financing, depending upon the ventures life cycle stage. Onset Ventures is a top-tier seed investor which has raised three funds till now. The partners at Onset have analyzed and set six principles, based on which they provide seed financing to a startup venture. The principles address the skill set and experience of the entrepreneur, continuously evolving business model, validation of business model followed by hiring the CEO, the funds spent only to add value perceived by the capital providers, productÃ¢â¬â¢s Unique Selling Proposition and the skills of personnel hired. These principles have been refined over time and lead to the development of incubation process through which the company develops, refines and pursues or rejects business ideas. During the first phase, pre-seed phase of incubation process, Onset analyzes if the business concept can be an attractive investment. Based on the outcome of the pre-seed phase, it proceeds to the seed phase and provides seed financing to the business. Onset analyzes the possible risks and tries to address those risks during this phase. The five risks are market, technical, operating, pricing risks, as well as the risk related to the operational capability of the business team. Onset has a comprehensive process of screening the ideas and identifying profitable ventures but it has lost the opportunities of making more profits due to tight funding of the ventures and by being too careful and risk- averse. II. Facts of the Case A. Stated Facts Onset Ventures was set-up with an initial $5 million fund in 1984 and subsequently raised $30m (Onset I) and $67m funds (Onset II). Out of these funds, two-thirds have been invested in seed and follow-on investments, and the rest is kept as reserves in Onset II. In 1996-97, the size of an average VC fund increased by 40% to $71 billion. The company plans to raise $80m-$95m fund, itÃ¢â¬â¢s the largest fund till now. Onset has provided seed financing of $1m for the company TallyUp to develop a viable software product. Onset operates on a model of five business principles and a specific incubation process of pre-seed phase and seed phase to screen the business ideas. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s minimum target IRR of a fund is 30% over 12 year cycle. Onset puts in a company around $1m in seed round, $1.5m in the next round, and $2m in the third round. Onset I gave positive IRR within 4 years of its inception (appendix 1) and Onset II took only th ree years to give positive IRR (appendix 2). The average number of investment has increased in subsequent funds, i.e. $2.5m in Onset I, $3.5m to $4m in Onset II and expected $4.5m to $5m in Onset III. B. Implied Facts Over the last 13 years, Onset has invested mainly in seed-stage and early-stage financing. Onset II has performed better than Onset I (appendix 3). III. Problem Definition A. Source Problem How many funds must be raised for Onset III? Whether Onset should invest an additional $1m into TallyUp for
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Crime and Punishment in Various Countries Essay Five Works Cited The effectiveness of the United States criminal legal system has been questioned and scrutinized by the media and legal analysts for decades. Even with laws to lengthen sentences and to try younger offenders as adults, the overall crime rate in the nation is still on the rise. But why is it that in places like Iceland and Singapore crime rates are so low yet both countries have very contrasting criminal laws? It has been brought to my attention that Congress will attempt to create an entire new criminal legal system for the states to adopt in an effort to finally make the streets of America safer for its citizens. Assuming that all states will forfeit their own policies to take up the system Congress builds, it is my duty to shed light on the criminal legal system and differing views of the United States and other countries legal systems and differing views of the United States and other countries of different governments, geographies, and legal systems. I will also explore the common ground they share when prosecuting criminal offenders. The information I will discover will be taken into consideration by legislators when designing a new and improved criminal justice system. It is first important to take a close look at the crime rate occurring in America. The United States has more citizens in prison than any other country. The incarceration rate of the U.S. is second only to Russia with 666 incarcerated per 100,000. The U.S. constitutes one third of the worlds population that is imprisoned while it only makes up five percent population. (Fathers Manifesto) The criminal legal system is slightly different in every state. For example, only thirty eight states practice capital punishment while the other twelve employ life imprisonment with no parole as an alternative to putting serious offenders to death. The death penalty in the United states is one of the most criticized policies in American society. Under the Constitutions eighth amendment, Americas are protected against cruel and unusual punishment. While it does not clearly define what punishment is deemed cruel and unusual, several campaigns argue that capital punishment is cruel and unusual and is a direct violation of human rights. Organizations like Amnesty International, a worldwide human rights group, claims that capital punishment is not only inhumane, but it does not deter crime more effectively in comparison to other punishments notinvolving death. (Amnesty International) Other studies have proven that it in fact costs up to three times more to put a person to death that it does to sentence life in prison with no parole. A Texas death penalty case costs an average of $2.3 million, about three times the cost of imprisoning someone in a single cell at the highest security level for forty years.(Hoppe 1A) Yet, with all the polls, statistics, and studies conducted to discourage the practice of the death penalty in the United States, other nations have found the death penalty, as well as other harsh punishments, is not a violation to human and civil rights, but an effective tool in keeping public safety. Singapores criminal laws are some of the most extreme and consistent laws found in all of the world. Its government still employs the use of corporal punishment for some offenses that would receive a mere parole sentence in the U.S. Singapores citizens have stated that even though its punishments are severe and outrageous to some, their streets are safer, cleaner, and the quality of life in Singapore is valued more because of these punishments. In this country the punishments that undergo heavy crossfire in the U.S. are swiftly carried out and as a result, crime in Singapore is significantly lower in comparison to the U.S. crime rates. (Fathers Manifesto) There is a consistent mandatory death sentence for narcotic offenders. A death sentence is also immediately carried out for anyone who opens fire while committing an unlawful act whether or not you shoot anyone or anything is not taken into consideration. (Singapore Law FAQ) Caning is another form of punishment carried out for crimes such as vandalism and sex offenses. Convicts are strapped to a trestle and the exposed buttocks of the offender are flogged by a martial arts expert. The caning is usually coupled with a prison sentence. Singapores officials argue that its strict laws and swift, severe punishment are what sets it aside from a crime-ridden place like New York City. (Fathers Manifesto)Of course, opponents to CP (corporal punishment) argue that this is also a cruel and unusual way to deter crime. However, those that argue this only need to compare the crime rates of Singapore to those of the United States. Whipping or caning is indeed stressful and painful but it is Singapores alternative to costly long-term confinement. This way criminals are quickly reformed and released back into society asÃ law abiding citizen. Another factor to be considered in Singapores low crime rate is its geography and its size. The country is located northeast of Indonesia just south of Malaysia. It is roughly 3.5 times the size of Washington D.C. It is arguable to say that the reason Singapores crime rates are low compared to the U.S. is because of its small, controllable area. But is the size of a nation or governed land a factor in determining its crime rate? Take into consideration the territory of Puerto Rico. It is a small island in the Atlantic Ocean; considerably smaller than Singapore. However, Puerto Ricos murder rate is more than three times higher than that of the U.S. (National Center) The sharp contrast between a place like Puerto Rico and Singapore and the U.S. is that while citizens of the U.S. and Singapore enjoy a high standard of living, over half of Puerto Ricos population earns less than US$ 11,000 a year. This brings us to another question in this research. Does a socioeconomic factor playa role in a countrys crime rate? Another interesting tidbit is that capital punishment does not exist in Puerto Rico. Their courts are set up similar to those of Singapore. A magistrate judge is the one who hears the case, decides the verdict and delivers the sentence. The prisons in Puerto Ricoare, for the most part, run by gangs, dilapidated, infested with insects and pose a serious health threat to inmates. (Penal Lexicon) The prison system has been under the watchful eye for the drastic and costly changes not only for the prisons, but for juvenile treatment centers, discipline measures and improvements in mental health care. The brutality of violence and disease in prisons seem like enough to prevent anyone from committing a crime that would result in jail time. Unfortunately, even with the abolishment of capital punishment and the anarchy in prisons, Puerto Rico is notorious for holding one of the worlds highest murder rate. (Penal Lexicon) After completing the criminal legal system of three random governments, it is interesting to see how each handles the ever- present demon called crime. When will there be a system that can effectively prevent crime and correct offenders without severe, barbaric tactics and without corruption and anarchy? When researching the topic on criminal legal systems, Ive foundÃ that different countries have very different beliefs in which they value the life of a human. One country, the United States, will go the extra mile to find the best possible defense for its accused. Another, Singapore, will torture and beat confessions from its suspects while the other, Puerto Rico, casts its criminals into a hell practically operated by those society has thrown away. The common ground all three nations share is their never-ending struggle to provide its citizens with the means to live a life that is safe, meaningful and without fear of danger. Back in America, our government will continue to brainstorm ideas to eliminate crime in our streets and neighborhoods.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Piece of the Pie Money is an important issue for almost all college students. Very few are lucky enough not to have the financial burdens of tuition, housing, and food interfere with their academic initiatives. Some students have parents that are wealthy enough to cover all of the costs of college. Other students are given financial aid from the university that they attend. If necessary, students can get jobs to help differ the costs. There are no restrictions put on most students as to where they can work, or how much they can earn. Most students have this freedom, but varsity athletes with scholarships attending Division I schools do not. The National Collegiate Athletic Association, the governing body of collegiate athletics, restricts these athletes from having jobs. Even though these athletes would have a hard time make room for a job between practices, meetings and games, they are not even given the opportunity to do so because of the NCAA regulations. These regulations are based on the fear that athletes could be employed by affiliates of the university, who could attract the best athletes by unjustifiably paying them extraordinary salaries. While this may be a valid concern, the regulations are most often carried out to ridiculous lengths which ultimately do not serve the purpose they are intended to have. For example, Northwestern University has an aspiring young actor named Darnell Autry who also happens to be the starting running back for the University's football team. Darnell was offered a role, based entirely on his acting abilities, in a major network's sitcom. The NCAA nearly forbid him from accepting this offer based on the regulations against athlete employment. Darnell was eventually allowed to accept the job, however, the NCAA did not allow him to get paid for his work. They reasoned that the cost of the flight out of Chicago was payment enough for Darnell. As in Darnell's case, the regulations cause more problems then they prevent. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The prospect of the money waiting for many athletes, like Darnell, when they leave college, leads them to abandon their education and head straight for the professional leagues. Some athletes, like Shawn Kemp or Kobe Bryant, skip college entirely. Kemp and Bryant both went directly from high school to the National Basketball Association, and are currently making millions of dollars a year. Other athletes, such as Stephon Marbury, Allen Iverson, Marcus Camby, Terry Glen, and Tim Biakabatuka, all college phenomenons from basketball and football, skip as many as three of their remaining college years. The lure of fame and fortune is making more and more athletes leave college early each year.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Why was Carter unsuccessful in his attempt to secure re-election in 1980? Jimmy Carter was the first elected President in half a century who failed to win a second term. His election in 1976 was set during the period of time when people had lost their faith in the presidency. After NixonÃ¢â¬â¢s humiliation considering Watergate scandal and FordÃ¢â¬â¢s simplistic and unenthusiastic govern, people were looking for someone outside WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s corruption. Carter seemed a perfect decision , governor of a small state, he appealed to people as the best solution. Nevertheless, as they got what they wanted it turned out to be wrong. They got a person from the outside that had no idea how Washington worked. People believed he was error prone and inexperienced. Carter soon became a joke and was criticized by the society that was not willing to give their votes for his re-election. Carter made several crucial mistakes during his power. From the beginning of his presidency he was accused of micro-management. This was one of his strategic errors, he tried to do too much too quickly and paid attention to small details forgetting the big picture and failing to grasp the complexity of the plans that he proposed. It is said that he managed the rota for the White House personally. An NSC member said: Ã¢â¬Å"If Carter saw a problem he wanted to solve it, and there was all there was to it Ã¢â¬â no prioritizationsÃ¢â¬ . His short sight pushed the voters away. People were not eager to vote for someone who would get absorbed in small things, rather than looking at serious problems like inflation, which Carter had inherited. His other mistake was rejecting all the help, including CongressÃ¢â¬â¢s. Carter had originally run on an anti- Washington platform, of course that was the reason he got elected; nevertheless it is hard to run a country when you have tension between the President and Congress. Therefore Carter never developed a solid base of supporters on Capitol Hill. Speaker Tip OÃ¢â¬â¢Neil was willing to help, however Carter who said that he had been a governor and knew how to deal with legislation rejected his proposal. CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s poor communication with Congress got him nowhere. Carter failed to get cooperation from Congress to pass certain legislations, such as his energy program. Americans understood that a stubborn President wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t bring any good to the country; CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s personal loyalties made voters doubt his wisdom and retrieve their votes for someone better. His other failure overshadowed everything that he has done as a president. The Ã¢â¬Å"BillygateÃ¢â¬ scandal had harmed Carters reputation and even lowered his chances of being re-elected. He won his first election in 1976 because people thought he was unaffected by WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s corruption, however this scandal highlighted Carters use of presidential power in his own benefit. CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s older brother Billy was a redneck; who, in July 1980, registered as a foreign agent and received a $220,000 loan from the Libyan government. It raised a political storm and later on through the investigation it was revealed that Carter used BillyÃ¢â¬â¢s Libyan contacts to free the Iranian hostages. President Carter was accused of nepotism however public decided that he was incompetent rather than corrupt but this scandal cost Carter his popularity rating and votes. Nonetheless, some of the negative events that occurred during Carters presidency were not his fault yet he got the blame. A first example would be the energy crises, which was beyond Carters control. Increase of car use, one harsh winter and poor relationship with Middle East were the reason for it, but still Carter was accused. Carter attempted to propose energy legislation, however Congress changed it beyond recognition. The only conclusion was to raise the price for the fuel but people were unwilling to go that far. Voters were unimpressed by the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s handling of this situation, which soon got even worse and caused even more dissatisfaction from people. The second example is the economy, which was the problem throughout CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s presidency yet was a mere question of luck. He inherited inflation, unemployment and rising aging population. 63 per cent of the Americans believed that inflation was their greatest concern yet Carter was not managing it; only 32 per cent approved of his actions. The unemployment was rising to 8.2 million and businesses feared that CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s energy proposal would damage the industry. Carter did not know how to handle these types of situation; being all his life a governor of small Georgia he now faced a major crisis. Carter was at the top and therefore blamed, he was simply unlucky. Yet this blame and dissatisfaction cost him votes. Carter also displeased the voters with the way he handled foreign policy. As a President, Carter decided that it was morally right to give Panama Canal over to Panama. He did it with little resistance, which displeased voters and Congress. His other mistake was accepting 125,000 Cuban refugees who were dissatisfied with Communist regime, although March 1980 Refugee Act said that no more than 19,000 were allowed to enter. It was morally right to let the people in and perhaps he would have been accused if he closed the doors for them, yet politics sometimes tend to forget about moral rules in times of crisis. With inflation and unemployment, new citizens were only burdens and caused further disagreement with CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s way of running the country. His final concern that had taken all CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s attention until his last day as a President was the 60 American hostages in Iran. Many Americans felt powerless and 50 per cent of them thought Carter was too soft with Iran. Carter had a choice; either to take hostages back with violence or with negotiation. He chose a more diplomatic way not wanting to risk lives, however back than people disapproved of this act. When finally Carter agreed on the rescue mission, helicopters that were sent into Iran failed. Eight Americans died, one helicopter was lost in sand storm another failed and set the others on fire. Technical and weather problems were not CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s fault yet his failed rescue mission caused CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s defeat and helped Republican to use the hostage crisis for votes. The final reason for Carters defeat was his opposition. Ronald Reagan was underestimated by Carter, yet adored by the people. The way he presented himself was the way a true President had to be. His lighthearted jokes and charisma made him come across warmer to voters than Carter. ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s rhetorical question Ã¢â¬Å"is America better off than it was four years ago?Ã¢â¬ was highly effective and the polls showed that he won the debate. Back in 1980, people believed that Carter was one of the worst presidents they had, yet as the years past people began to justify his acts. He was not great but he did what he could, he was just unlucky. His failures were because Washington was unknown to him and he did things how he usually used to do the back in his state. His big mistake was Ã¢â¬Å"BillygateÃ¢â¬ and economical crisis, which was not under his control. Reagan compared to Carter presented a true picture of successful presidency. Unfortunately Carter was not what people wanted and some of his failed actions cost him his re-election.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Organizational culture can be defined as a system of shared beliefs and values that develops within an organization and guides the behavior of its members. It includes routine behaviors, norms, dominant values, and a feeling or climate conveyed. The purpose and function of this culture is to help foster internal integration, bring staff members from all levels of the organization much closer together, and enhance their performance. However, there seems to be a widely held misconception that throughout an organization or within a specific division there is only one uniform culture that exists. This definition does not seem adequate because it fails to recognize that in many organizations there are quite often groups that are uniqueÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Quite often individuals never really become part of the dominant culture yet merely they try to give that impression so that they are not dismissed. Secondly, it falls short in the case of many individuals that have been hir ed as a contract employee. Not having the certainty and job security of a full time staff member makes individuals less open towards the organizations norms and values. By not having the confidence in their future at the firm individuals are likely to be very reluctant to make the effort and try to become part of the team, and eventually the firms culture. In addition the candidates did not receive the extensive training that was needed to help develop their skills and perform the routine tasks of this very demanding position. This may have been a result of the fact that the company was unsure whether they would retain the services of the new staff. This in turn made many of the new recruits feel inadequate when compared to their full-time counterparts. Hence they did not feel part of the team and part of the organization. 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Friday, December 27, 2019
Christelle Julien Summer 2015 Mr. Premisler AP U.S History Peopling The influx of international migrants resulted in an ethnically diverse society, giving rise to the concept of a melting pot. Though the first wave of immigration resulted in heightened ethnic tensions, the second wave of a more distinctive groups resulted in even more ethnic prejudice and xenophobia. The increase of immigrants also resulted in the worsening of life for African Americans. Ultimately, the large populations of immigrants caused cultural pluralism to take place in which ethnic differences were embraced rather than suppressed. During the early 1800s, there was a rapid increase of international migrants that would continue wellÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Large populations of migrants would later come from Asia, particularly China, and from Latin America. By 1990, minority groups made up 25 percent of population. 47 percent of immigrants came from Latin America, 37 percent from Asia and 13th percent from Europe and Canada. America by the end of the 20th century started to dispel their ethnic-based quotas and opened immigration to all parts of the world. Home to many immigrants, America earned the label of a melting pot. African Americans were the most adversely affected by the influx of international migrants. African AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ position socially suffered greatly as their importance in society dwindled due to their displacement in society. They were already restrained by economic and political inequality and their misfortune only amplified with the rapid flow of migrants. Racial prejudices prevented them from obtaining skilled professions so they resorted to unskilled jobs. As immigration heightened, they were pushed from jobs they held since the revolution. The Irish, especially, competed with them for domestic work and unskilled labor. Instead, African Americans resorted to being strikebreakers who were usually dismissed after the strike ended. The first wave of immigrants had little impact on the social culture of America as they simply were absorbed into society. The second wave of migrants, however, implanted themselves distinctly into American society and came to embrace their